Orion Office REIT, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Accounting
The consolidated and combined statements of the Company presented herein include the accounts of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation. The financial statements are prepared on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”).
Principles of Consolidation and Combination and Basis of Presentation
The consolidated and combined statements of the Company include the accounts of Realty Income Office Assets presented on a combined basis for the period from January 1, 2021 to October 31, 2021 and for the year ended December 31, 2020, as the ownership interests were under common control and ownership of Realty Income during the respective periods. From and after the Merger Effective Time, the consolidated and combined financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries and a consolidated joint venture, which accounts include the Realty Income Office Assets and the VEREIT Office Assets. The portion of the consolidated joint venture not owned by the Company is presented as non-controlling interest in the Company’s consolidated and combined balance sheets, statements of operations, statements of comprehensive income (loss) and statements of equity.
For periods presented prior to the date of the Distribution, the historical consolidated and combined results for the Company reflect charges for certain legal, accounting and other costs related to the Distribution, which were incurred and paid by Realty Income on the Company’s behalf and are reflected as capital contributions.
For legal entities being evaluated for consolidation, the Company must first determine whether the interests that it holds and fees it receives qualify as variable interests in the entity. A variable interest is an investment or other interest that will absorb portions of an entity’s expected losses or receive portions of the entity’s expected residual returns. The Company’s evaluation includes consideration of fees paid to the Company where the Company acts as a decision maker or service provider to the entity being evaluated. If the Company determines that it holds a variable interest in an entity, it evaluates whether that entity is a variable interest entity (“VIE”). VIEs are entities where investors lack sufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or where equity investors, as a group, lack one or more of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance, (b) the obligation to absorb the expected losses of the entity, or (c) the right to receive the expected returns of the entity. The Company consolidates entities that are not VIEs if it has a majority voting interest or other rights that result in effectively controlling the entity.
The Company then qualitatively assesses whether it is (or is not) the primary beneficiary of a VIE, which is generally defined as the party who has a controlling financial interest in the VIE. Consideration of various factors include, but are not limited to, the Company’s ability to direct the activities that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance and its obligation to absorb losses from or right to receive benefits of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. The Company continually evaluates the need to consolidate VIEs based on standards set forth in U.S. GAAP.
Per Share Data
Income (loss) per basic share of common stock is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock issued and outstanding during such period. Diluted income (loss) per share of common stock considers the effect of potentially dilutive shares of common stock outstanding during the period.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Management makes significant estimates regarding real estate investment impairments.
Acquisition, disposition, and leasing deal related costs incurred by the Company, previously included in the acquisition related line on the consolidated and combined statements of operations, have been presented in the transaction related line for prior periods presented to be consistent with the current period presentation. Spin related costs are costs incurred by the Company in connection with the Separation and the Distribution. These costs were previously included in the transaction costs line on the consolidated and combined statements of operations and have been presented in the spin related line for prior periods presented to be consistent with the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations.
Spin related expenses are expensed as incurred. Such expenses are primarily comprised of the legal and professional fees associated with the formation and organization of the Company, the Mergers and the Distribution. Such costs also include expenses related to the fair value of the warrants issued to the Arch Street Partner and one of its affiliates during the year ended December 31, 2021.
At the inception of a new lease arrangement for which the Company is the lessor, including new leases that arise from amendments, the Company assesses the terms and conditions to determine the proper lease classification. When the terms of a lease effectively transfer control of the underlying asset, the lease is classified as a sales-type lease. When a lease does not effectively transfer control of the underlying asset to the lessee, but the Company obtains a guarantee for the value of the asset from a third party, the Company classifies the lease as a direct financing lease. All other leases are classified as operating leases. As of December 31, 2022, none of the Company’s leases were classified as sales-type leases or direct financing leases.
To account for leases for which the Company is the lessee, contracts must be analyzed upon inception to determine if the arrangement is, or contains, a lease. A lease conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Lease classification tests and measurement procedures are performed at the lease commencement date. When the terms of a lease effectively transfer control of the underlying asset, the lease is classified as finance lease, otherwise it is classified as an operating lease.
The lease liability is initially measured as the present value of the lease payments over the lease term, discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease, if that rate is readily determinable; otherwise, the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate is used. The incremental borrowing rate is determined based on the estimated rate of interest that the lessee would pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term at an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. The lease term is the noncancelable period of the lease and includes any renewal and termination options the Company is reasonably certain to exercise. The lease liability balance is amortized using the effective interest method. The lease liability is remeasured when the contract is modified, upon the resolution of a contingency such that variable payments become fixed or if the assessment of exercising an extension, termination or purchase option changes.
The right-of-use (“ROU”) asset balance is initially measured as the lease liability amount, adjusted for any lease payments made prior to the commencement date, initial direct costs, estimated costs to dismantle, remove, or restore the underlying asset and incentives received.
The Company continually reviews receivables related to rent, straight-line rent and property operating expense reimbursements and determines collectability by taking into consideration the tenant’s payment history, the financial condition of the tenant, business conditions in the industry in which the tenant operates and economic conditions in the area in which the property is located. The review includes a binary assessment of whether or not substantially all of the amounts due under a tenant’s lease agreement are probable of collection. For leases that are deemed probable of collection, revenue continues to be recorded on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For leases that are deemed not probable of collection, revenue is recorded as cash is received and the Company reduces rental revenue for any straight-line rent receivables. The Company recognizes all changes in the collectability assessment for an operating lease as an adjustment to rental revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company recorded a reduction to rental revenue of $1.5 million for income not probable of collection. During the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company did not record any reductions to rental revenue for amounts not probable of collection.
For operating leases with minimum scheduled rent increases, the Company recognizes rental revenue on a straight-line basis, including the effect of any free rent periods, over the lease term when collectability of lease payments is probable. Variable lease payments are recognized as rental revenue in the period when the changes in facts and circumstances on which the variable lease payments are based occur. Variable lease payments, including contingent rent, which is paid by a tenant when the tenant’s sales exceed an agreed upon minimum amount, are recognized once tenant sales exceed contractual tenant lease thresholds and is calculated by multiplying the sales in excess of the minimum amount by a percentage defined in the lease.
Certain of the Company’s leases also contain provisions for tenants to reimburse the Company for real estate taxes, insurance and maintenance and other property operating expenses. Such reimbursements are included in rental revenue and amounts paid directly by tenants are recorded on a net basis, as applicable (i.e., the property operating expenses paid directly by tenants are not included in the Company’s consolidated and combined financial statements).
Rental revenue also includes lease termination income collected from tenants to allow for tenants to settle their lease obligations and/or vacate their space prior to their scheduled termination dates, as well as amortization of above and below-market leases and lease incentives. During the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company recognized $1.4 million and $0.3 million, respectively, of lease termination income. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company did not recognize any lease termination income.
Fee Income from Unconsolidated Joint Venture
The Company provides various services to the Arch Street Joint Venture in exchange for market-based fees. Total asset and property management fees earned in connection with this entity was $0.8 million and $0.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. No such fee income was earned for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Real Estate Investments
The Company records acquired real estate at cost when such acquisitions qualify as asset acquisitions and makes assessments as to the useful lives of depreciable assets. The Company considers the period of future benefit of the asset to determine the appropriate useful lives. Depreciation is computed using a straight-line method over the estimated useful life of 35 years for buildings, to 15 years for building fixtures and improvements and the remaining lease term for intangible lease assets.
Allocation of Purchase Price of Real Estate Acquisitions
For acquisitions that qualify as asset acquisitions, the Company allocates the purchase price of acquired properties to tangible and identifiable intangible assets and liabilities acquired based on their relative fair values. Tangible assets include land, buildings, fixtures and improvements on an as-if vacant basis. The Company utilizes various estimates, processes and information to determine the as-if vacant property value. Identifiable intangible assets and liabilities include amounts allocated to acquired leases for above-market and below-market lease rates and the value of in-place leases. In estimating fair values for purposes of allocating purchase price, the Company utilizes a number of sources, including independent appraisals that may be obtained in connection with the acquisition or financing of the respective property and other market data. The Company also considers information obtained about each property as a result of its pre-acquisition due diligence, as well as subsequent marketing and leasing activities, in estimating the fair value of the tangible and intangible assets acquired and intangible liabilities assumed.
The aggregate value of intangible assets related to in-place leases is primarily the difference between the property valued with existing in-place leases adjusted to market rental rates and the property valued as if vacant. Factors considered by the Company in its analysis of the in-place leases include an estimate of carrying costs during the expected lease-up period for each property, taking into account current market conditions and costs to execute similar leases. In estimating carrying costs, the Company includes real estate taxes, insurance and other operating expenses and estimates of lost rentals at market rates during the expected lease-up period. The Company also estimates costs to execute similar leases, including leasing commissions, legal and other related expenses. The value of in-place leases is amortized over the remaining non-cancelable term of the respective leases at acquisition. If a tenant terminates its lease, then the unamortized portion of the in-place lease value is charged to expense.
Above-market and below-market in-place lease values for owned properties are recorded based on the present value (using an interest rate which reflects the risks associated with the leases acquired) of the difference between the contractual amounts to be paid pursuant to the in-place leases and management’s estimate of fair market lease rates for the corresponding in-place leases, measured over a period equal to the remaining non-cancelable term of the lease, including any bargain renewal periods. A bargain renewal period is provision in a lease which allows a lessee, at its option, to renew a lease at a rate that is sufficiently lower than fair market lease rates at the date such option is exercisable such that exercise of the option appears, at the inception of the lease, to be reasonably certain. Above-market leases are amortized as a reduction to rental revenue over the remaining terms of the respective leases. Below-market leases are amortized as an increase to rental revenue over the remaining terms of the respective leases, including any bargain renewal periods.
The determination of the fair values of the real estate assets and liabilities acquired requires the use of significant assumptions with regard to the current market rental rates, rental growth rates, capitalization and discount rates, interest rates and other variables. The use of alternative estimates may result in a different allocation of the Company’s purchase price, which could materially impact the Company’s results of operations.
Assets Held for Sale
The Company classifies a real estate investment as held for sale when certain criteria are met in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Upon classifying a real estate investment as held for sale, the Company will no longer recognize depreciation or amortization expense related to the depreciable assets of the property. Assets held for sale are recorded at the lower of carrying value or estimated fair value, less the estimated cost to dispose of the assets. See Note 3 – Real Estate Investments and Related Intangibles for further discussion regarding properties held for sale.
If circumstances arise that the Company previously considered unlikely and, as a result, the Company decides not to sell a property previously classified as held for sale, the Company will reclassify the property as held and used. The Company measures and records a property that is classified as held and used at the lower of (i) its carrying value before the property was classified as held for sale, adjusted for any depreciation and amortization expense that would have been recognized had the property been continuously classified as held and used or (ii) the estimated fair value at the date of the subsequent decision not to sell.
Investment in Unconsolidated Joint Venture
The Company accounts for its investment in the Arch Street Joint Venture arrangement using the equity method of accounting as the Company has the ability to exercise significant influence, but not control, over the operating and financing policies of the investment. The equity method of accounting requires the investment to be initially recorded at cost and subsequently adjusted for the Company’s share of equity in the joint venture’s earnings and distributions. The Company records its proportionate share of net income (loss) from the Arch Street Joint Venture in equity in loss of unconsolidated joint venture, net in the consolidated statements of operations. See Note 3 – Real Estate Investments and Related Intangibles for further discussion on the Company’s investment in the Arch Street Joint Venture.
The Company is required to determine whether an event or change in circumstances has occurred that may have a significant adverse effect on the fair value of its investment in the Arch Street Joint Venture. If an event or change in circumstance has occurred, the Company is required to evaluate its investment in the Arch Street Joint Venture for potential impairment and determine if the carrying value of its investment exceeds its fair value. An impairment charge is recorded when an impairment is deemed to be other-than-temporary. To determine whether an impairment is other-than-temporary, the Company considers whether it has the intent and ability to hold the investment until the carrying value is fully recovered. The evaluation of an investment in an unconsolidated joint venture for potential impairment requires the Company’s management to exercise significant judgment and to make certain assumptions. The use of different judgments and assumptions could result in different conclusions. No impairments of the Arch Street Joint Venture were identified during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. Prior to the Distribution, the Company did not own any investments in an unconsolidated joint venture.
Real Estate Assets
The Company performs impairment review procedures, primarily through continuous monitoring of events and changes in circumstances that could indicate the carrying value of its real estate assets may not be recoverable. Impairment indicators that the Company considers include, but are not limited to, decrease in a property’s net operating cash flows, bankruptcy or other credit concerns of a property’s major tenant or tenants, such as history of late payments, rental concessions and other factors, as well as significant decreases in a property’s revenues due to lease terminations, vacancies or reduced lease rates. When impairment indicators are identified or if a property is considered to have a more likely than not probability of being disposed, the Company assesses the recoverability of the assets by determining whether the carrying value of the assets will be recovered through the undiscounted future cash flows expected from the use of the assets and their eventual disposition. U.S. GAAP requires us to utilize the Company’s expected holding period of our properties when assessing recoverability. In the event that such expected undiscounted future cash flows do not exceed the carrying value, the Company will adjust the real estate assets to their respective fair values and recognize any impairment loss. Generally, fair value is determined using a discounted cash flow analysis and recent comparable sales or leasing transactions. The assumptions and uncertainties utilized in the evaluation of the impairment of real estate assets are discussed in Note 5 – Fair Value Measures.
Right of Use Assets
The Company’s impairment assessment for ROU assets is consistent with the impairment analysis for the Company’s other long-lived assets. No impairments of ROU assets were identified during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020. See Note 5 – Fair Value Measures for further discussion.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in bank accounts, as well as investments in highly-liquid funds with original maturities of three months or less. The Company deposits cash with high quality financial institutions. These deposits are guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to an insurance limit of $250,000. At times, the Company’s cash and cash equivalents may exceed federally insured levels. Although the Company bears risk on amounts in excess of those insured by the FDIC, it has not experienced and does not anticipate any losses due to the high quality of the institutions where the deposits are held.
The Company had $34.7 million in restricted cash as of December 31, 2022, primarily comprised of reserves held by the lender under the CMBS Loan (as defined in Note 6 – Debt, Net) for future rent concessions and tenant improvement allowances. The Company did not have any restricted cash balances as of December 31, 2021. The Company had $3.9 million in restricted cash as of December 31, 2020, which primarily consisted of mortgage impounds and security deposits related to mortgages payable. In accordance with certain debt agreements that were outstanding as of December 31, 2020, rent from certain of the Company’s tenants was deposited directly into a lockbox account, from which the monthly debt service payments were disbursed to the lender and the excess funds were then disbursed to the Company. Included in the restricted cash as of December 31, 2020 was $3.4 million in mortgage impounds related to mortgages payable and $0.5 million in security deposits related to mortgages payable. Restricted cash is included in other assets, net on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs represent commitment fees, legal fees and other costs associated with obtaining commitments for financing. Deferred financing costs, other than those associated with the Revolving Facility (as defined in Note 6 – Debt, Net), are presented on the consolidated balance sheets as a direct deduction from the carrying value of the related debt liability rather than as an asset. Deferred financing costs related to the Revolving Facility are included in other assets, net in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Deferred financing costs are amortized to interest expense over the terms of the respective financing agreements using the effective interest method. Unamortized deferred financing costs are written off when the associated debt is refinanced or repaid before maturity. Costs incurred in connection with potential financial transactions that are not completed are expensed in the period in which it is determined the financing will not be completed.
The Company may use derivative financial instruments, including interest rate swaps, caps, collars, treasury locks, options and forwards to hedge all or a portion of the interest rate risk associated with its borrowings. The Company’s interest rate management objectives are intended to limit the impact of interest rate fluctuations on earnings and cash flows and to manage the Company’s overall borrowing costs. To accomplish this objective, the Company has used and intends to continue to use interest rate swaps as part of its cash flow hedging strategy. The Company does not intend to utilize derivatives for trading or speculative purposes or for purposes other than interest rate risk management. The use of derivative financial instruments carries certain risks, including the risk that the counterparties to these contractual arrangements are not able to perform under the agreements. To mitigate this risk, the Company only enters into derivative financial instruments with counterparties with high credit ratings and with major financial institutions with which the Company may also have other financial relationships. The Company does not anticipate that any of the counterparties will fail to meet their obligations.
The Company records all derivatives on the consolidated balance sheets at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of derivatives depends on the intended use of the derivative, whether the Company has elected to designate a derivative in a hedging relationship and apply hedge accounting and whether the hedging relationship has satisfied the criteria necessary under U.S. GAAP to apply hedge accounting. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to changes in the fair value of an asset, liability, or firm commitment attributable to a particular risk, such as interest rate risk, are considered fair value hedges. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to variability in expected future cash flows, or other types of forecasted transactions, are considered cash flow hedges.
The accounting for subsequent changes in the fair value of these derivatives depends on whether each has been designated and qualifies for hedge accounting treatment. If the Company elects not to apply hedge accounting treatment, any changes in the fair value of these derivative instruments is recognized immediately in other income, net in the consolidated and combined statements of operations and consolidated and combined statements of comprehensive income (loss). If the derivative is designated and qualifies for cash flow hedge accounting treatment, the change in fair value of the derivative is recorded in other
comprehensive income (loss). Unrealized gains and losses in other comprehensive income (loss) are reclassified to interest expense when the related hedged items impact earnings.
The Company records a liability in the consolidated and combined statements for loss contingencies when a loss is known or considered probable and the amount is reasonably estimable. If the reasonable estimate of a known or probable loss is a range, and no amount within the range is a better estimate than any other, the minimum amount of the range is accrued. If a material loss is reasonably possible but not known or probable, and is reasonably estimable, the estimated loss or range of loss is disclosed.
The Company has been operating in a manner so to qualify and has elect to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended (the “Code”), commencing with the taxable year ended December 31, 2021. To maintain the Company’s qualification as a REIT, the Company must meet a number of organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement that it distribute annually at least 90% of its REIT taxable income, subject to certain adjustments and excluding any net capital gain to its stockholders. However, Orion OP is still subject to certain state and local income, franchise, property, and other taxes in the various jurisdictions in which it operates. The Company may also be subject to federal income taxes on certain income and federal excise taxes on its undistributed income.
The Company provides for income taxes in accordance with current authoritative accounting and tax guidance. The tax provision or benefit related to significant or unusual items is recognized in the quarter in which those items occur. In addition, the effect of changes in enacted tax laws, rates or tax status is recognized in the quarter in which the change occurs. The accounting estimates used to compute the provision for or benefit from income taxes may change as new events occur, additional information is obtained or the tax environment changes.
During both the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company recognized state and local income and franchise tax expense of $0.2 million, which is included in provision for income taxes in the accompanying consolidated and combined statements of operations.
The Company regularly analyzes its income tax positions in the jurisdictions in which it operates and only recognizes the income tax effect in the financial statements when certain criteria regarding uncertain tax positions have been met. The Company believes that its material income tax positions would more likely than not be sustained upon examination by the relevant taxing authorities. Therefore, no provisions related to material uncertain income tax positions have been recognized in the accompanying consolidated and combined financial statements during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. Any interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits would be recognized in provision for income taxes in the accompanying consolidated and combined statements of operations.
For periods presented prior to the Merger Effective Time, Realty Income Office Assets was owned by Realty Income, a Maryland corporation which had elected to be taxed as a REIT, under the Code. Under the REIT operating structure, Realty Income was permitted to deduct dividends paid to its stockholders in determining its taxable income. Assuming Realty Income’s dividends equaled or exceeded its taxable net income, it was generally not required to pay federal corporate income taxes on such income. Accordingly, no provision was made for federal income taxes in the accompanying consolidated and combined financial statements of the Company for such prior periods.
The properties in the consolidated and combined financial statements which comprised Realty Income Office Assets were previously owned directly or indirectly by limited partnerships or limited liability companies of Realty Income and, as a result, the allocated share of income for periods presented prior to the Merger Effective Time are included in the consolidated income tax return of Realty Income.
The Company operates in one business segment: direct ownership and operation of commercial real estate.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04 establishing Topic 848, Reference Rate Reform. ASU 2020-04 contains practical expedients for reference rate reform related activities that impact debt, leases, derivatives and other contracts. The guidance is optional and is effective between March 12, 2020 and December 31, 2022. The FASB issued ASU 2022-06 in December 2022, in association with Topic 848, to extend the sunset date from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2024. The guidance under Topic 848 may be elected over time as reference rate reform activities occur. As of December 31, 2022, all of our debt and derivative instruments have been converted from the London Interbank Offered Rate, commonly referred to as LIBOR, to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, commonly referred to as SOFR. In connection with the transition of the benchmark rate for borrowings under the Revolver/Term Loan Credit Agreement (as defined in Note 6 – Debt, Net) from LIBOR to SOFR, the Company terminated the existing interest rate swap agreements and entered into new interest rate swap agreements during the three months ended December 31, 2022. The new interest rate swap agreements continue to be accounted for as a cash flow hedge. The adoption of ASU 2020-04 did not have a material impact on our consolidated and combined financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef