VEREIT Office Assets, Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2022
Mar. 31, 2021
|Entity Information [Line Items]
Note 1 – Organization
Orion Office REIT Inc. (the “Company”, “Orion”, “we” or “us”) was incorporated in the state of Maryland on July 1, 2021 and was capitalized on July 15, 2021.
On April 29, 2021, Realty Income Corporation (“Realty Income”) entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (as amended, the “Merger Agreement”) with VEREIT, Inc. (“VEREIT”), its operating partnership, VEREIT Operating Partnership, L.P. (“VEREIT OP”), Rams MD Subsidiary I, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Realty Income (“Merger Sub 1”), and Rams Acquisition Sub II, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Realty Income (“Merger Sub 2”). On November 1, 2021, pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub 2 merged with and into VEREIT OP, with VEREIT OP continuing as the surviving partnership, and immediately thereafter, VEREIT merged with and into Merger Sub 1, with Merger Sub 1 continuing as the surviving corporation (together, the “Mergers”, and such effective time of the Mergers, the “Merger Effective Time”). Upon the Merger Effective Time, as part of the Mergers, Realty Income acquired certain office real properties and related assets previously owned by subsidiaries of VEREIT (collectively, “VEREIT Office Assets”). Following the Merger Effective Time, in accordance with the Merger Agreement, Realty Income contributed the portion of the combined business comprising certain office real properties and related assets previously owned by subsidiaries of Realty Income (collectively, “Realty Income Office Assets”) and VEREIT Office Assets (the “Separation”) to the Company and its operating partnership, Orion Office REIT LP (“Orion OP”). On November 12, 2021, following the Separation, in accordance with the Merger Agreement and that certain Separation and Distribution Agreement, Realty Income effected a special distribution to its stockholders (including the former holders of VEREIT common stock and certain former VEREIT OP common unitholders prior to the Mergers) of all of the outstanding shares of common stock of the Company (the “Distribution”). Approximately $595.0 million was distributed by the Company to Realty Income in accordance with the Separation and Distribution Agreement. In connection with the Separation and the Distribution, the Company entered into certain agreements with Realty Income to govern the ongoing relationships between the Company and Realty Income and to provide mechanisms for an orderly transition to the Company’s status as an independent, publicly traded company, including the Separation and Distribution Agreement and a transition services agreement to provide certain administrative and other services between the parties for a limited time. Following the Distribution, the Company became independent and publicly traded and intends to qualify and elect to be taxed as a REIT, commencing with the Company’s initial taxable year ended December 31, 2021.
The Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, trades on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “ONL”.
At March 31, 2022, the Company owned and operated 92 office properties and related assets previously owned by Realty Income and VEREIT, totaling approximately 10.5 million leasable square feet located within 29 states and Puerto Rico. In addition, the Company owns an equity interest in an unconsolidated joint venture with an affiliate of Arch Street Capital Partners (the “Arch Street Joint Venture”), which, as of March 31, 2022 owned a portfolio consisting of six office properties totaling approximately 1.0 million leasable square feet located within six states.
|VEREIT Office Assets
|Entity Information [Line Items]
Note 1 – Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
On April 29, 2021, Realty Income Corporation (“Realty Income”) entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (as amended, the “Merger Agreement”) with VEREIT, Inc. (“VEREIT”), its operating partnership, VEREIT Operating Partnership, L.P. (“VEREIT OP”), Rams MD Subsidiary I, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Realty Income (“Merger Sub 1”), and Rams Acquisition Sub II, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Realty Income (“Merger Sub 2”). On November 1, 2021, pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub 2 merged with and into VEREIT OP, with VEREIT OP continuing as the surviving partnership, and immediately thereafter, VEREIT merged with and into Merger Sub 1, with Merger Sub 1 continuing as the surviving corporation (together, the “Mergers”, and such effective time of the Mergers, the “Merger Effective Time”). Upon the Merger Effective Time, as part of the Mergers, Realty Income acquired certain office real properties and related assets previously owned by subsidiaries of VEREIT (collectively, “VEREIT Office Assets”). Following the Merger Effective Time, in accordance with the Merger Agreement, Realty Income contributed the portion of the combined business comprising certain office real properties and related assets previously owned by subsidiaries of Realty Income (collectively, “Realty Income Office Assets”) and the VEREIT Office Assets (the “Separation”) to Orion Office REIT Inc. (the “Company”) and its operating partnership, Orion Office REIT LP (“Orion OP”). On November 12, 2021, following the Separation, in accordance with the Merger Agreement and that certain Separation and Distribution Agreement, Realty Income effected a special distribution to its stockholders (including the former holders of VEREIT common stock and certain former VEREIT OP common unitholders prior to the Mergers) of all of the outstanding shares of common stock of the Company (the “Distribution”). Following the Distribution, Orion operates as a separate, publicly-traded company and intends to qualify and elect to be taxed as a REIT, commencing with the Company’s initial taxable year ended December 31, 2021. VEREIT Office Assets includes the combined accounts related to certain of the office properties of VEREIT, historically operated through subsidiaries of VEREIT, and contains certain corporate costs.
As of March 31, 2021, VEREIT Office Assets had one reportable segment which owned 52 properties, including one property owned by a consolidated joint venture, totaling approximately 7.6 million leasable square feet located in 25 states in the United States and Puerto Rico, and an investment in one unconsolidated joint venture that owns four office properties totaling approximately 0.7 million leasable square feet located within four states.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Combination and Basis of Accounting and Presentation
The accompanying combined and consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) and include the accounts of VEREIT Office Assets on a combined and consolidated basis as the ownership interests were under common control and ownership of VEREIT, including a consolidated joint venture. Any applicable intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation and combination. The portion of the consolidated joint venture not previously owned by VEREIT, is presented as non-controlling interest in VEREIT Office Assets’ combined and consolidated balances sheets and statements of operations. The information furnished includes all adjustments and accruals of a normal recurring nature, which, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair presentation of results for the interim periods. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results for the entire year or any subsequent interim period. These combined and consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited combined and consolidated financial statements of VEREIT Office Assets and notes thereto as of and for the ten months ended October 31, 2021, included in the Form 10-K for Orion Office REIT Inc. filed on March 24, 2022. Information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements have been condensed or omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC and GAAP.
For legal entities being evaluated for consolidation, VEREIT Office Assets must first determine whether the interests that it holds and fees it receives qualify as variable interests in the entity. A variable interest is an investment or other interest that will absorb portions of an entity’s expected losses or receive portions of the entity’s expected residual returns. VEREIT Office Assets’ evaluation includes consideration of fees paid to VEREIT Office Assets where VEREIT’s management, on behalf of VEREIT Office Assets, acts as a decision maker or service provider to the entity being evaluated. If VEREIT Office Assets determines that it holds a variable interest in an entity, it evaluates whether that entity is a variable interest entity (“VIE”). VIEs are entities where investors lack sufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or where equity investors, as a group, lack one of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance, (b) the obligation to absorb the expected losses of
the entity, or (c) the right to receive the expected returns of the entity. VEREIT Office Assets consolidates entities that are not VIEs if it has a majority voting interest or other rights that result in effectively controlling the entity.
VEREIT Office Assets then qualitatively assesses whether it is (or is not) the primary beneficiary of a VIE, which is generally defined as the party who has a controlling financial interest in the VIE. Consideration of various factors include, but are not limited to, VEREIT Office Assets’ ability to direct the activities that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance and its obligation to absorb losses from or right to receive benefits of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. VEREIT Office Assets consolidates any VIEs when the Company is determined to be the primary beneficiary of the VIE and the difference between consolidating the VIE and accounting for it using the equity method could be material to VEREIT Office Assets’ combined and consolidated financial statements. VEREIT Office Assets continually evaluates the need to consolidate these VIEs based on standards set forth in GAAP.
These combined and consolidated financial statements were derived from the books and records of VEREIT and were carved out from VEREIT at a carrying value reflective of historical cost in such VEREIT records. VEREIT Office Assets’ historical balance sheets reflect amounts for goodwill based on its proportion of the cost basis of the real estate assets as of December 31, 2018. VEREIT Office Assets’ historical financial results reflect charges for certain corporate costs and, we believe such charges are reasonable. Costs of the services that were charged to VEREIT Office Assets were based on either actual costs incurred or a proportion of costs estimated to be applicable to this entity, based on VEREIT Office Assets’ pro rata share of VEREIT’s annualized rental income. Annualized rental income is rental revenue on a straight-line basis, which includes the effect of rent escalations and any tenant concessions, such as free rent, and excludes any adjustments to rental income due to changes in the collectability assessment, contingent rent, such as percentage rent, and operating expense reimbursements. The historical combined and consolidated financial information presented may therefore not be indicative of the results of operations, financial position or cash flows that would have been obtained if there had been an independent, stand-alone public company during the periods presented or of Orion’s future performance as an independent, stand-alone company.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Real Estate Investments
Real estate and related assets acquired are recorded at cost and accumulated depreciation and amortization are assessed based on the period of future benefit of the asset. Depreciation and amortization are computed using a straight-line method over the estimated useful life of 40 years for buildings and building improvements, 15 years for land improvements and the remaining lease term for tenant improvements and intangible lease assets.
VEREIT management performed quarterly impairment review procedures, primarily through continuous monitoring of events and changes in circumstances that could indicate the carrying value of its real estate assets may not be recoverable. Impairment indicators that VEREIT management considered included, but were not limited to, decrease in operating income, bankruptcy or other credit concerns of a property’s major tenant or tenants or a significant decrease in a property’s revenues due to lease terminations, vacancies or reduced lease rates.
When impairment indicators are identified or if a property is considered to have a more likely than not probability of being disposed of within the next 12 to 24 months, VEREIT management assessed the recoverability of the assets by determining whether the carrying value of the assets will be recovered through the undiscounted future cash flows expected from the use of the assets and their eventual disposition. GAAP required VEREIT Office Assets to utilize the expected holding period of its properties when assessing recoverability. In the event that such expected undiscounted future cash flows did not exceed the carrying value, the real estate assets have been adjusted to their respective fair values and an impairment loss has been recognized. There are inherent uncertainties in making estimates of expected future cash flows such as market conditions and performance and sustainability of the tenants.
Investment in Unconsolidated Joint Venture
As of March 31, 2021, VEREIT Office Assets owned a 20% ownership interest in an unconsolidated joint venture, the Arch Street Joint Venture, that owned four properties with total real estate investments, at cost, of $169.3 million and total debt outstanding of $102.6 million, which was non-recourse to VEREIT Office Assets.
VEREIT Office Assets accounted for its investment in the unconsolidated joint venture using the equity method of accounting as VEREIT Office Assets had the ability to exercise significant influence, but not control, over operating and financing policies of the joint venture. The equity method of accounting requires the investment to be initially recorded at cost and subsequently adjusted for VEREIT Office Assets’ share of equity in the joint venture’s earnings and distributions. VEREIT Office Assets recorded its proportionate share of net income (loss) from the unconsolidated joint venture in equity in income of unconsolidated joint venture in the combined and consolidated statements of operations.
VEREIT Office Assets was required to determine whether an event or change in circumstances had occurred that may have had a significant adverse effect on the fair value of its investment in the unconsolidated joint venture. If an event or change in circumstance had occurred, VEREIT Office Assets’ management was required to evaluate its investment in the unconsolidated joint venture for potential impairment and determine if the carrying value of its investment exceeded its fair value. An impairment charge is recorded when an impairment is deemed to be other-than-temporary. To determine whether an impairment is other-than-temporary, VEREIT Office Assets’ management considered whether it had the ability and intent to hold the investment until the carrying value is fully recovered. The evaluation of an investment in an unconsolidated joint venture for potential impairment required VEREIT Office Assets’ management to exercise significant judgment and to make certain assumptions. The use of different judgments and assumptions could result in different conclusions. No impairments were identified during the three months ended March 31, 2021.
VEREIT evaluated goodwill for impairment annually or more frequently when an event occurred or circumstances changed that indicated the carrying value may not be recoverable. To determine whether it was necessary to perform a quantitative goodwill impairment test, VEREIT first assessed qualitative factors, including macro-economic conditions such as deterioration in the entity’s operating environment or industry or market considerations; entity-specific events such as increasing costs, declining financial performance, or loss of key personnel; or other events such as an expectation that a reporting unit will be sold or sustained decrease in VEREIT’s stock price on either an absolute basis or relative to peers. If an entity believes, as a result of its qualitative assessment, that it is more-likely-than-not (i.e. greater than 50% chance) that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test is required. Otherwise, no quantitative testing is required. If it is determined, as a result of the qualitative assessment, that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value is less than the carrying amount, the provisions of guidance require that the fair value be compared to the carrying value. Goodwill is considered impaired if the carrying value exceeds the fair value. No impairments of VEREIT’s goodwill were recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2021. The results of the VEREIT impairment tests carry over to VEREIT Office Assets, therefore no impairments were recorded in the accompanying combined and consolidated statements of operations.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
VEREIT Office Assets considers all highly liquid instruments with maturities when purchased of three months or less to be cash equivalents. VEREIT Office Assets considers investments in highly liquid money market accounts to be cash equivalents.
As of March 31, 2021, restricted cash included $2.3 million in lender reserves. Reserves relate to lease expirations, as well as maintenance, structural and debt service reserves.
Rent and Tenant Receivables and Other Assets, Net
Rent and tenant receivables and other assets, net primarily includes amounts to be collected in future periods related to the recognition of rental income on a straight-line basis over the lease term and cost recoveries due from tenants. Prepaid expenses as of the balance sheet date relate to future periods and will be expensed or reclassified to another account during the period to which the costs relate. Any amounts with no future economic benefit are charged to earnings when identified.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs represent commitment fees, legal fees and other costs associated with obtaining commitments for financing. Deferred financing costs are presented on the combined and consolidated balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the related debt liability. These costs are amortized to interest expense over the terms of the respective financing agreements using the straight-line method, which approximates the effective interest method. Unamortized deferred financing costs are written off when the associated debt is refinanced or repaid before maturity. Costs incurred in connection with potential financial transactions that are not completed are expensed in the period in which it is determined the financing will not be completed.
Leases - Lessor
At the inception of a new lease arrangement, including new leases that arise from amendments, the terms and conditions are assessed to determine the proper lease classification. When the terms of a lease effectively transfer control of the underlying asset, the lease is classified as a sales-type lease. When a lease does not effectively transfer control of the underlying asset to the lessee, but a guarantee is obtained for the value of the asset from a third party, the lease is classified as a direct financing lease. All other leases are classified as operating leases. As of March 31, 2021, no leases were classified as sales-type or direct financing leases.
For operating leases with minimum scheduled rent increases, rental revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis, including the effect of any free rent periods, over the lease term when collectability of lease payments is probable. Variable lease payments are recognized as rental revenue in the period when the changes in facts and circumstances on which the variable lease payments are based occur.
VEREIT Office Assets adopted Accounting Standards Codification Topic 842, Leases effective as of January 1, 2019. Two separate lease components were identified as follows: (i) land lease component and (ii) single property lease component comprised of building, land improvements and tenant improvements. The leases also contain provisions for tenants to reimburse VEREIT Office Assets for real estate taxes and insurance, which are considered noncomponents of the lease, and maintenance and other property operating expenses, which are considered to be non-lease components. VEREIT Office Assets elected the practical expedient to combine lease and non-lease components and the non-lease components will be included with the single property lease component as the predominant component.
VEREIT Office Assets continually reviews receivables related to rent, straight-line rent and property operating expense reimbursements and determines collectability by taking into consideration the tenant’s payment history, the financial condition of the tenant, business conditions in the industry in which the tenant operates and economic conditions in the area in which the property is located. The review includes a binary assessment of whether or not substantially all of the amounts due under a tenant’s lease agreement are probable of collection. For leases that are deemed probable of collection, revenue continues to be recorded on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For leases that are deemed not probable of collection, revenue is recorded as cash is received. All changes in the collectability assessment for an operating lease are recognized as an adjustment to rental income.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, there was a global outbreak of a new strain of coronavirus, COVID-19. The global and domestic response to the COVID-19 outbreak continues to evolve. Federal, state, and local authorities have responded in a variety of ways, including temporary closure of or imposed limitations on the operations of certain non-essential businesses. Since the COVID-19 outbreak began, each of VEREIT Office Assets’ tenants has almost entirely continued to meet its payment obligations under its respective lease. In consideration of each tenant’s payment history, among other factors, there have been no changes in the collectability assessment for any of VEREIT Office Assets’ operating leases. Though the COVID-19 outbreak did not have a material impact on VEREIT Office Assets’ results of operations, cash flows or financial condition for the three months ended March 31, 2021, it could negatively impact tenant operations at VEREIT Office Assets’ properties in the future, which could result in a material impact to VEREIT Office Assets’ future results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Leases - Lessee
To account for leases for which VEREIT Office Assets is the lessee, contracts must be analyzed upon inception to determine if the arrangement is, or contains, a lease. A lease conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Lease classification tests and measurement procedures are performed at the lease commencement date.
The lease liability is initially measured as the present value of the lease payments over the lease term, discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease, if that rate is readily determinable; otherwise, the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate is used. The incremental borrowing rate is determined based on the estimated rate of interest that the lessee would pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term at an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. The lease term is the noncancelable period of the lease and includes any renewal and termination options VEREIT Office Assets is reasonably certain to exercise. The lease liability balance is amortized using the effective interest method. The lease liability is remeasured when the contract is modified, upon the resolution of a contingency such that variable payments become fixed or if the assessment of exercising an extension, termination or purchase option changes.
The operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) asset balance is initially measured as the lease liability amount, adjusted for any lease payments made prior to the commencement date, initial direct costs, estimated costs to dismantle, remove, or restore the underlying asset and incentives received.
As of March 31, 2021, VEREIT Office Assets was owned by VEREIT, which had elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, commencing with the taxable year ended December 31, 2011. VEREIT believed it was organized and operating in such a manner as to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for the taxable year ended December 31, 2021. As a REIT, VEREIT was generally not subject to federal income tax on taxable income that it distributed to its stockholders so long as it distributed annually at least 90% of its REIT taxable income (computed without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gains). Accordingly, no provision has been made for federal income taxes in the accompanying combined and consolidated financial statements of VEREIT Office Assets.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, VEREIT Office Assets recognized state and local income and franchise tax expense of approximately $0.2 million. Amounts are included in provision for income taxes in the accompanying combined and consolidated statements of operations.
VEREIT Office Assets had no unrecognized tax benefits as of or during the three months ended March 31, 2021. Any interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits would be recognized in provision for income taxes in the accompanying combined and consolidated statements of operations. As of March 31, 2021, VEREIT Office Assets had no material uncertain income tax positions.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04 establishing Topic 848, Reference Rate Reform. ASU 2020-04 contains practical expedients for reference rate reform related activities that impact debt, leases, derivatives and other contracts. The guidance is optional and is effective between March 12, 2020 and December 31, 2022. The guidance may be elected over time as reference rate reform activities occur. We are currently evaluating the impact that the expected market transition from the London Interbank Offered Rate, commonly referred to as LIBOR, to alternative references rates will have on our financial statements as well as the applicability of the aforementioned expedients and exceptions provided in ASU 2020-04.